Roselyn House School / The RHISE Service
Behaviour Support and Physical Intervention Policy
This Policy was previously known as Care and Control Policy
The policy should be read in conjunction with other school policies relating to interaction between adults and students. In particular Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service Behaviour Policy. It makes reference to: Use of Reasonable Force: advice for Head teachers, Staff and Governing Bodies for schools in England – 2013, Behaviour and Discipline in schools 2016, the Education and Inspections Act 2006, Education Act 2011.
Moving forwards together to a positive future.
The responsible people for the implementation of the policy are the Headteacher and Teaching and Learning Co-ordinator. The policy will be reviewed annually by the Headteacher and Deputy Headteacher in consultation with staff.
SEMH difficulties is an overarching term for children who demonstrate difficulties with emotional regulation and/or social interaction and/or are experiencing mental health problems.
Children and young people who have difficulties with their emotional and social development may have immature social skills and find it difficult to make and sustain healthy relationships. These difficulties may be displayed through the child or young person becoming withdrawn or isolated, as well as through challenging, disruptive or disturbing behaviour.
At Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service, we experience a wide range and degree of mental health problems. These could manifest as difficulties such as problems of mood (anxiety or depression), problems of conduct (oppositional problems and more severe conduct problems including aggression), self-harming, substance abuse, eating disorders or physical symptoms that are medically unexplained. Some children and young people may have other recognised disorders such as attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), attachment disorder, autism or pervasive developmental disorder, an anxiety disorder, a disruptive disorder or schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
Inappropriate / disturbing / challenging behaviours can be interpreted as a symptom or communication of an underlying need or difficulty. In order to address such behaviours we must address these underlying needs / difficulties. It is crucial to identify, understand and then address/support the underlying factors that impact on children and young people, such as Speech, Language and Communication Difficulties, attachment difficulties, unhelpful thought processes or learning needs.
Some inappropriate / disturbing / challenging behaviours can be avoided or significantly reduced and managed through proactively promoting and supporting positive social, emotional and mental health.
All systems, teaching and management of the school focus on the promotion, establishment, assessment and internalisation of socially acceptable and appropriate behaviours for example, the Code of Conduct, various reward systems (if applicable) and individual IEBP’s.
The objectives may best be achieved by a mutually supportive whole school approach and a whole staff responsibility to work within the agreed parameters of the Behaviour Policy and its procedures.
Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service tolerates a wide variety of behaviours but does not accept them as inevitable and unchangeable. An individual’s behaviours will be prioritised and through planned intervention and adherence to the rewards and sanctions in the Behaviour Policy, ensure that the consequences to behaviour are specific and limited. Students will be encouraged to take ‘ownership’ of their own behaviour and behave in such a way that is mutually respected by all. Each student will be subject to behaviour profiles and testing which will help to identify areas of behaviour which cause concern and will allow targets to be set within the students IEBP, in order to promote development. Boxall Profiles will be completed during Initial Assessment and updated for Annual Reviews. (See Assessment and Marking Policy).
In line with the Behaviour policy, Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service endeavours to reinforce policy through the valued partnership with parents/ carers and they will be asked to fill in behaviour profiles to help staff at Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service to develop a greater understanding of the young person. They will be asked to contribute towards Parental/ Carer Advice for Annual Reviews.
These aims can be achieved by being attachment aware in the following ways:
Purpose of Policy
Good personal and professional relationships between staff and students are essential to ensure good order.
It is recognised that the majority of students respond positively to the discipline and control practiced by staff. This ensures the well-being and safety of all students and staff. It is also acknowledged that in exceptional circumstances, staff may need to take action in situations where the use of reasonable force may be required.
Every effort will be made to ensure that all staff:
The application of any form of physical control places staff in a vulnerable situation. It can be justified according to the circumstances described in this policy. Staff, therefore, have a responsibility to follow the policy and to seek alternative strategies wherever possible in order to prevent the need for physical intervention.
Reasonable force will only be used as a last resort when all other behaviour management strategies have failed. Staff should also take into consideration Covid-19 risk assessment.
In the Use of Force Guidance- Short Summary, it states: ‘All school staff members have a legal power to use reasonable force to prevent students committing a criminal offence, injuring themselves or others or damaging property, and to maintain good order and discipline.’
‘In schools force is generally used for two different purposes- to control students and restrain them.
Staff should ensure that students understand as far as they are able, that there is an expectation of high standards of behaviour.
Positive Handling describes a broad spectrum of risk reduction strategies. Positive handling is a holistic approach involving policy, guidance, management of the environment and deployment of staff. It also involves personal behaviour, diversion, diffusion and de-escalation. Positive Handling is seen as being proactive to meet individual student’s needs.
At Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service, Positive Handling Plans are based on assessment of risk and identify positive prevention strategies and how a student may need to be supported in a crisis. The focus of these plans is to keep everyone safe whilst helping the young person to develop strategies in order to modify their behaviour and manage their self. Positive Handling Plans are not used for all students on The RHISE Service as the expectation is that students are on individualised programmes or are Post 16 and therefore, are choosing to be within the education provision and should take a greater ownership of their personal conduct.
A SMART target is included in the student’s IEBP so that everyone is clear what the student is working towards and how we will know when they have achieved this.
We recognise that positive touch is used at Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service. It is an integral part of the job. It is essential to provide sensitive and good quality care. We believe used in context and with understanding, touch supports positive interactions and is a natural part of appropriate relationships. Additional guidance is available in Safer Working Practice for Adults who work with Children and Young People in Education Settings 2019 updated April 2020.
This may be used to divert a student from a destructive or disruptive action, for example guiding or leading a student by the hand, arm or shoulder with little or no force when there is a level of compliance from the students.
This technique cannot be emphasised enough and can help to deflect from a potentially volatile situation or less confrontational situation. A timely intervention can often defuse a situation.
Physical Control/ Restraint
This will involve the use of reasonable force when there is an immediate risk to students, staff or property. All such incidents must be recorded using Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service ‘Serious Incident Procedures’ (see attached at the end of this policy). All records must be passed on as soon as possible and within 24hours. The student’s parents/ carers will be informed of any significant incident as soon as is practicable after the incident.
The level of compliance from the student determines whether or not the interaction is an intervention or a restrictive physical intervention (RPI). Restraint is defined by TEAM TEACH as the positive application of force by staff, in order to overcome rigorous resistance; completely directing, deciding and controlling a person’s free movement.
Everyone attending or working in Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service has the right to:
Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service works with students who are experiencing difficulties. We believe that our students are entitled to the best education that we can give them, the opportunities available to others, support for individual need and to this end employ highly dedicated, experienced and qualified staff.
Students attending this school and their parents/ carers have a right to:
All staff are trained in skills to help them to defuse situations before behaviour becomes challenging and how to de-escalate incidents should they arise. These alternative strategies will be used in preference to physical interventions and the use of force wherever possible and safe to do so. Reasonable force will only be used when the risks involved in doing so are outweighed by the risks involved in not intervening/using force.
Implications of the Policy
As teaching and support staff work ‘in loco parentis’ and have a Duty of Care towards their students, they could be liable for a claim of negligence if they fail to follow the guidance within this policy. The use of Team Teach techniques is one of our health and safety control methods for reducing risks presented by students’ challenging behaviour. Students Positive Handling Plans are Safe Systems of Work under Health and Safety Regulations. As such it is imperative that these plans are consistently followed and implemented by all members of staff, where appropriate.
The application of any form of physical support/intervention inevitably carries an attached risk of unintended harm and this places staff and the school at risk of potential litigation. Staff have a responsibility to follow this policy and to seek alternative strategies wherever possible in order to prevent the need for physical intervention. Staff need to be aware that they are responsible for:
Staff are required to justify their decisions in writing through the recording and reporting procedures outlined later in this document.
The Violent Crime Reduction Act 2006 effective from September 2007, gives schools powers to screen or search students for weapons. At Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service, it is extremely unlikely that students would conceal weapons. It is in our Behaviour Policy that we have the right to search and this will be managed by the Headteacher and Teaching and Learning Co-ordinator and if deemed safe to do so, Group Leads may also do so with permission from the Headteacher/ Teaching and Learning Co-ordinator. If a weapon is found, the Police will be informed.
Risk Assessment and deciding whether to use Restrictive Physical Interventions
It may be necessary to make a judgement about the relative risks and potential benefits arising from activities which might provoke challenging behaviours compared with the impact on the student’s overall quality of life if such activities are not allowed.
Both challenging behaviour and restrictive physical interventions will involve a risk – to both staff and students. A risk assessment aims to balance these risks. The aim of the individual student’s Positive Handling Plan and of this policy is to reduce the risks associated with students’ challenging behaviour as far as is reasonably practicable – both the risks that are associated with the behaviour itself and the risk of managing that behaviour. The risks of employing an intervention should be lower than the risks of not doing so.
All staff are authorised to use physical intervention with students and will receive initial instruction and viable training in Team Teach techniques as a risk reduction strategy, and receive information about the risk to students of positional asphyxia. There are very clear protocols delivered during training to minimise the risk of harm to students and to ensure that appropriate safeguards are implemented.
Prevention and De-escalation
Every effort will be made to resolve conflicts positively and without harm to students or staff, property, buildings or the environment. The Positive Handling Plan and Behaviour Policy will outline specific ways to prevent incidents with the individual student. Good classroom organisation, clear boundaries that are consistently maintained, interesting lessons and reduced numbers due to Bubble groups will be effective in preventing incidents with almost all students.
De-escalation techniques should be used wherever possible and appropriate to defuse a situation and prevent an incident from occurring – a non-confrontational, calm but assertive approach is generally most effective.
Diverting the student’s attention and distracting them from the “trigger” or a third person intervening can also help to prevent incidents. These should all be used before resorting to restrictive physical interventions, unless safety is at risk.
This is achieved by:
This involves the recognition of the early stages of a behavioural sequence or pattern that is likely to develop into violence or aggression and employing ‘diffusion’ techniques to avert any further escalation.
Where there is clear documented evidence that particular sequences of behaviour escalate rapidly into violence, the use of a restrictive physical intervention (RPI) at an early stage in the sequence may, potentially, be justified if it is clear that:
Types of Incident
The Education and Inspections Act 2006 stipulates that reasonable force may be used to prevent a student from doing, or continuing to do any of the following:
The incidents described in The Education and Inspections Act 2006 and The Use of Reasonable Force to Control and Restrain Students fall into three broad categories: -
Examples of situations which fall within one of the first two categories, are:
Examples of situations which fall into the third category are:
Where a student’s behaviour threatens good order and discipline and provokes intervention, some or all of the following approaches should be taken according to the circumstances of the incident:
Strategies for dealing with challenging behaviour and supporting students in crisis
All staff at Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service will consistently use positive strategies to prevent the likelihood of incidents occurring, and to develop appropriate behaviour and good order – research shows that the way to improve behaviour is to praise and reward appropriate behaviour to increase the likelihood of it happening again! Alternative, positive behaviours are actively taught to replace inappropriate behaviour and every student has a target relating to this incorporated into their IEBP.
At Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service, we have high expectations of good behaviour throughout the school that have led to many students with challenging behaviour, developing coping skills and ultimately being able to manage their own behaviour. It is a necessary path towards Adulthood and wanting to have a positive and fulfilling future.
It is also acknowledged that progress can be very slow and some students may take many years to develop socially acceptable behaviour. A small steps approach, with positive reinforcement consistently and enthusiastically employed, and where progress is carefully recorded, allows staff and parents/carers/others to acknowledge the progress that all students make in changing their behaviour.
Planned and emergency physical interventions
A planned intervention is one that is described/outlined in the student’s Positive Handling Plan. This should cover most interventions, as possible scenarios will be identified through the Risk Assessment and planned for when the Plan is drawn up. These interventions may include the use of Team Teach techniques.
An emergency physical intervention may be necessary if a situation arises that was not foreseen or is uncharacteristic of the student. Members of staff retain their duty of care to students and any response, even in an emergency, must be proportionate to the circumstances. Staff should use the minimum force necessary to prevent injury and maintain safety, consistent with the training that they have received. Wherever possible assistance will be sought from another member of staff.
Following any such incident, the Positive Handling Plan may be amended to support effective responses to any such situations which may arise in the future, which in effect are then viewed as a foreseeable risk.
No legal definition of reasonable force exists however for the purpose of this policy and the implementation of it within Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service:
Any use of force by staff outside of the Team Teach training framework would need to be judged on whether it was reasonable, proportionate and necessary in the particular circumstances concerned.
All the techniques taught take account of a young person’s;
They also provide a gradual, graded system of response.
Acceptable measures of physical intervention (PI)
The use of Team Teach PI techniques can be justified if:
Wherever possible assistance should be sought from another member of staff before intervening.
This form of physical intervention may involve staff:
Restrictive Physical Interventions
In some circumstances, trained staff may need to use more restrictive holds - Team Teach RPI techniques. Acceptable methods are taught as part of the training procedures made available to appropriate staff.
Any such measures will be most effective in the context of the overall positive and caring ethos of the school, the way in which staff exercise their responsibilities, and the behaviour change support strategies used.
Staff may need to rotate roles and have a break if the incident is prolonged (over 10 minutes) – you should follow the student’s Positive Handling Plan; at all times acting in the best interests of the young person.
Most staff are trained in First Aid and there may also be a school nurse on site. Any of these may be called upon to implement First Aid or to seek further guidance from in the event of an injury or physical distress arising as a result of a physical intervention.
This involves a student choosing to move or be moved away from a situation that causes anxiety or distress to a location where they can be continuously observed and supported until they are ready to resume usual activities.
This may involve a student choosing to spend time away from the situation themselves, or staff helping them from the situation to provide time to calm down or to prevent the situation from escalating.
There are rooms for students to go to at school and The RHISE Centre- known as Positive Outcome Zones.
Some students respond best to spending some time in a specific quiet space to calm or self-regulate. When this is the case staff will either take them to the room or the young person will ask/opt to go.
This will always be part of a planned intervention (therapeutic or behaviour) and the location of support will be specified.
The POZ room is intended for a quiet space and with the intention for the student to return to their lesson when appropriate or alternatively choose to complete work in there.
There are also Therapy rooms available for further support.
A student should never be locked in a room or put in a room on their own with a door shut.
“Temporary Restriction of Liberty” (TRL):
Previous techniques listed above require the student’s consent; if the student does not consent, then the focus of the behaviour management technique may need to escalate to the Temporary Restriction of Liberty:
Under these circumstances, and specifically where there is a risk of the student hurting themselves or others, the student may be physically removed or escorted to the POZ room (again identified on plan and risk-assessed).
In such cases we believe this is the method of least resistance as a prolonged hold is not in the young person’s best interests.
This Temporary Restriction of Liberty is a risk assessed, personalised and structured (reported, recorded and reviewed) strategy, and agreed in the young person’s best interests with the aim of preventing the risk of harm. This is considered as the risk of physical or psychological harm or the risk of harm to a safe environment.
The member of staff will stand or sit in the open doorway to restrict the young person from leaving for a planned length of time. This indicates that there is a route out once the young person is able to self- regulate and is not a risk to their selves or others.
Seclusion is where a student is required to spend time alone against their will in a room which they are not permitted to leave until they no longer present a significant degree of danger to other people. At Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service we do not use seclusion.
Corporal punishment was abolished in all Maintained Schools by the Education (No2) Act 1986. Corporal punishment is the intentional use of force as a punishment. This is not used at Roselyn House School.
Positive Listening, Learning (PLL) and support following incidents
Physical interventions are not used in isolation and Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service is committed to ensuring that as a result of incidents, learning opportunities are created for young people that allow them to ‘own’ and take responsibility for their behaviour at a level appropriate to their stage of development.
In addition PLL procedures are in place to ensure that appropriate support is provided and recorded for staff and students, and that following an incident student/staff relationships are rebuilt and repaired to ensure that a positive learning environment is maintained. Students who may be distressed by events can be offered the following support:
PLL Time with a member of staff to “discuss” the incident, using a symbol debrief sheet or other alternative or augmentative forms of communication (AAC).
Staff should ensure that they are fully recovered from an incident before resuming their duties and colleagues are encouraged to seek and offer support where it is deemed necessary. Where staff have been involved in an incident involving a Restrictive Physical Intervention they should have access to counselling and support as needed. This will be made available/supported through Miss Damerall, Head teacher, Mr Dickinson, Learning Support Co-ordinator, and Miss Holmes who is a qualified counsellor.
Mr Dickinson, Learning Support Co-ordinator, will ensure that each incident is reviewed and investigated further as required. If further action is required in relation to a member of staff or a student, this will be pursued through the appropriate procedure/s:
In some circumstances it may be appropriate to provide additional training or professional support for particular staff in relation to the management of incidents where although the criteria for the application of the above procedures were not met, it is decided that the incident could have been managed more effectively.
All teachers, support staff and therapists the Headteacher has authorised to have control or charge of students automatically have the statutory power to use reasonable force within the context of The Education and Inspections Act 2006/11 and the subsequent guidance ‘The Use of Force to Control and Restrain Students’ 2013.
The school provides training as appropriate for all authorised staff and the Business Manager retains a list of all those staff trained in Team Teach.
The Team Teach model emphasises that 95% of behaviour management is the employment of de-escalation techniques. It emphasises the minimum amount of reasonable and proportionate force for the minimum amount of time possible.
Those who are not authorised to use Team Teach will be told what steps to take in Managing Behaviour as part of their Induction Training and Class training under the direction of the class teacher following the strategies outlined in the student’s Positive Handling Plan .
All members of staff are reminded that all students who have challenging behaviour will have a Positive Handling Plan, which should be strictly adhered to. These plans are reviewed regularly and staff are encouraged to make a contribution to the plans. A student’s Positive Handling Plan constitutes a Safe System of Work under Health and Safety Regulations. If any member of staff believes that a Positive Handling Plan is no longer effective/suitable for any reason they MUST discuss this with the Teaching and Learning Co-ordinator and/or Headteacher BEFORE making any adjustments to it.
Staff and students should follow the Behaviour Policy where everyone will act with courtesy and respect for each other at all times and all students have the right to learn in a safe environment.
Staff and students should follow school’s Single Equality Policy where discrimination should be challenged and positive information provided about different groups of people, that is non-stereotyping.
It is the expectation that staff follow the code of conduct of the school and act as role models, displaying school values and behaviours, for example never using homophobic language. The role of staff is to promote the well- being and safety of all students.
It is important to record, monitor and report all incidents that are motivated by prejudice, including those that fall below the definition of bullying. See Anti-Bullying Policy. A prejudiced based incident is a one-off incident of unkind or hurtful behaviour that is motivated by a prejudice or negative attitudes, beliefs or views towards a protected characteristic or minority group. It can be targeted towards an individual or group of people. Recording and monitoring prejudiced-based incidents helps to prevent bullying as it enables school to target anti-bullying interventions.
Training for all staff will be made available and will be the responsibility of the Headteacher and the Business Manager. Prior to the provision of training, guidance will be given on action to be taken. Arrangements will be made clear and training will be provided each term for new staff as part of the induction process. Further refresher training will be provided as part of on-going staff development.
Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service is committed to implementing The TEAM TEACH Approach (working together to safeguard People and Services). Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service acknowledges that physical techniques are only a part of a whole setting approach to behaviour management. In line with this Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service is committed to working within a framework for accessing training in that:
Health and Safety
‘Team-Teach techniques seek to avoid injury to the service user, but it is possible that bruising or scratching may occur accidentally, and these are not to be seen necessarily as a failure of professional technique, but a regrettable and infrequent side effect of ensuring that the service user remains safe’.
Physical interventions are intended to reduce risk but there is always risk when two or more people engage to use force to protect, release or restrain. Injuries should be reported on a body map and a medical check offered to the student. Any injuries will be reported to the appropriate authority in line with LADO procedures.
In addition, procedures are also in place to ensure that appropriate support is provided for staff and that following an incident student/ staff relationships are rebuilt and repaired to ensure that a positive learning environment is maintained.
Under the Health and Safety at Work Act, employees have a responsibility to report any circumstances which give rise to an increased risk to their Health and Safety.
Staff that have, or acquire, permanently or temporarily, any medical condition that may impact on their ability to carry out students’ Positive Handling Plans have a duty to report these to the Headteacher immediately as there may be an impact on their own safety and that of colleagues and/or students.
Visits Out of School
Our equal opportunities policy states that all students should be included in all curriculum activities. However, Health and Safety remains a priority and staff should carry out risk assessments for each student prior to each visit into the community. See Education Visits and Behaviour Policy. Due consideration should be given to the following:
Positive Handling Plans
Positive Handling Plans are written for individual children and where appropriate/ available, these will be designed through multi agency collaboration.
Staff will be expected to make risk assessments before, during, and after a serious incident involving Positive Handling. A generic Positive Handling Plan is created on a student’s admission to Roselyn House School/ The RHISE Service which is then individualised/ personalised during the student’s 8-week Initial Assessment period. This may not be required for all The RHISE Service students. The Positive Handling Plan is kept on the school Computer Network and a hardcopy in student’s files outside the Admin Office in the locked cabinet.
It is relevant to note that the TEAM TEACH Approach has received letters of support from the leading Teachers Professional Associations, which include NAHT, NUT NASUWT/ PAT.
Where physical intervention has been used to manage a student, a record of the incident may need to be kept. Where physical control or restraint has been used a record of the incident must be kept. A serious incident reporting slip will be completed about the incident and taken to the Admin Office; where a member of the Admin Team will insert a one-line entry into the Serious Incident book and issue the member of staff with a personalised incident sheet. Due to the Covid 19 Pandemic the recording procedure has been adapted and this can be read in the Serious Incident Procedure which is annexed to this document.
This record will be made in the school’s incident book, which will include:
The incident book report will be completed as soon as possible after the incident.
In addition, specific details of the use of reasonable force will be recorded which include:
Staff may find it helpful to seek advice from a senior colleague or representative of their Professional Association/ Union when compiling a report. They should also keep a copy of the report.
After the review of the incident, copies of the form should be placed on the students file and in the school’s general file on the use of reasonable force.
A Health and Safety Accident/ Incident form should be completed and returned to the LEA if injury occurs as a result of intervention.
Where staff have been involved in an incident involving reasonable force they have access to counselling and support from Senior staff.
It is important that the reflection, repair and rebuild process is entered into by the student, members of staff involved and a member of the SMT if required.
Monitoring and Evaluation
Through the Headteacher, Mr Dickinson, the Learning Support Co-Ordinator and the relevant outside agencies/ LEAs. All incidents involving restraint will be regularly monitored by number and type.
Any resultant training needs will be identified and relevant and appropriate support and be service provided.
In addition the monitoring will form part of the School’s overall self-evaluation strategy where evaluation will inform future planning. This will be particularly relevant for informing student’s Positive Handling Plan.
Any concerns regarding physical interventions should be discussed initially with the Headteacher. If the complaint is not resolved then parents/ carers should contact the School in writing and the complaint will be forwarded to the Headteacher who is one of the Directors for KS Education Limited and/ or the Deputy Director for Learners Support of the relevant LEA.
All these will be recorded and managed by the appropriate procedures – either complaint or allegation.
Whilst the training in TEAM TEACH provided to staff encourages the use of help protocols and reflective practice, it is acknowledged that under some circumstances, physical intervention can be misapplied. Staff are reminded that part of their duty of care to students includes the requirement to report any such matters which cause them concern in relation to pupil management and welfare. Any such concerns, (short of immediate Child Protection concerns which should, of course, be passed to the DSL), should be raised with the Headteacher or School Business Manager in order to allow concerns to be addressed and practice improved.
Reviewed June 2022
Roselyn House School / The RHISE Centre
Serious Incident Procedure
Should a serious incident happen during the school day, below is the structure that is to be followed:
Reviewed June 2022